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Dark Matter

Source: https://www.space.com/36495-astronomers-capture-the-first-image-of-the-dark-...

Dark Matter: Astronomers Capture the First 'Image' of Dark Matter - Inter-Galactic Gravity Lensing (2017) #KBCvoid

'Researchers have produced what they say is the first composite image of a dark matter filament that connects galaxies together. "This image moves us beyond predictions to something we can see and measure," said Mike Hudson, a professor of astronomy at the University of Waterloo in Canada, co-author of a new study published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Dark matter, an elusive substance that is estimated to make up around 27 percent of the universe, doesn't give off, reflect, or absorb light. This has made it virtually impossible to detect, except for its effects when it exerts a gravitational tug or when it warps the light of distant galaxies in what is called gravitational lensing. For their work, Hudson and co-author Seth Epps, who was a master's student at the University of Waterloo at the time of the research, employed a technique called weak gravitational lensing — a statistical measurement of the slight bends that occur in the path of light passing near mass. The effect produces illustrations of galaxies that appear slightly warped owing to the presence of celestial mass, such as dark matter.

In their paper, they explained that in order to study the weak lensing signal of the dark matter filaments, they required two sets of data: a catalog of galaxy cluster pairs that were lensed, and a catalog of background source galaxies with accurate distance measurements. They combined lensing data from a multi-year sky survey at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope with information from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey that mapped luminous red galaxies (LRGs), which are massive, distant, and very old galaxies. "LRGs are very bright galaxies," Hudson told Seeker via email. "They tend to be more massive than the average galaxy and live in more massive dark matter 'halos.' It's reasonable to expect that the filament or bridge between them might also be more massive than the average." Hudson and Epps combined or "stacked" more than 23,000 galaxy pairs, all located about 4.5 billion light-years away. This allowed them to create a composite image or map that shows the presence of dark matter between galaxies. Hudson told Seeker that the filament in their "image" is the average of all 23,000 pairs.'

+ https://www.wired.com/story/the-mind-boggling-math-that-maybe-mapped-the-brain-in-11-dimensions

'Earth and its parent galaxy are living in a cosmic desert — a region of space largely devoid of other galaxies, stars and planets, according to a new study. The findings confirm the results of a previous study based on observations taken in 2013. That previous study showed that Earth's galaxy, the Milky Way, is part of a so-called cosmic void. These voids are part of the large-scale structure of the universe, which looks sort of like a block of Swiss cheese, made up of dense filaments containing huge collections of galaxies surrounding relatively empty regions. The cosmic void that contains the Milky Way's is dubbed the Keenan, Barger and Cowie (KBC) void, after the three astronomers who identified it in the 2013 study. It is the largest cosmic void ever observed — about seven times larger than the average void, with a radius of about 1 billion light-years, according to the study. The KBC void is shaped like a sphere, and is surrounded by a shell of galaxies, stars and other matter. The new study shows this model of the KBC void is not ruled out based on additional observational data, Amy Barger, an observational cosmologist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison who was involved with both studies, said in a statement from the university. Barger's undergraduate student who led the study, Benjamin Hoscheit, spoke about their work at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Austin, Texas, on June 6.'

+ The KBC Void (2017):
+ https://www.space.com/37191-we-live-in-a-cosmic-void.html


+ Reconstruction and Simulation of Neocortical Microcircuitry (2015):
+ http://www.cell.com/abstract/S0092-8674(15)01191-5

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