Pinned 2 months 16 hours ago onto Constitutional Law
The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924:
'President Calvin Coolidge signed the Indian Citizenship Act (also known as the Snyder Act, after the bill's sponsor, Representative Homer P. Snyder, of New York) into law on June 2, 1924. This significant step in the battle for civil rights for American Indians is highlighted in this photograph of President Calvin Coolidge flanked by four Osage Indians, outside of the White House in 1925. The photograph was taken in a commemoration of the passage and signing of the Snyder Act. The Osage formerly inhabited the area between the Missouri and Arkansas Rivers, and were a part of the Sioux Nation.
The Indian Citizenship Act granted full citizenship to all of the approximately 125,000 of 300,000 indigenous people living in the United States. The text reads:
"BE IT ENACTED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That all noncitizen Indians born within the territorial limits of the United States be, and they are hereby, declared to be citizens of the United States: Provided, That the granting of such citizenship shall not in any manner impair or otherwise affect the right of any Indian to tribal or other property."
The Constitution of the United States had not recognized American Indians as citizens, and the guarantees of rights to African Americans contained in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments did not extend to American Indians. The federal government and some of the states allowed individual Indians to enjoy the rights of citizenship following service in the armed forces, marriage to white citizens, or abandonment of tribal affiliations in order to own private property and pay taxes...
The Snyder Act was far more inclusive than other policies that dealt with citizenship, but it was not until the Nationality Act of 1940 that all people who were born on United States soil were automatically considered citizens. The Snyder Act created national citizenship for indigenous people in the United States, but the qualifications for state citizenship were determined by each individual state. The final state to grant full citizenship to American Indians was New Mexico in 1962.'
+ The Indian Citizenship Act in 1924: